conductor of the Helsinki Symphony Orchestra, Susanna Mälkki is particularly
keen to promote the contemporary repertoire. She will be at the Palais Garnier
to direct the world premier of Trompe-la-mort
by Luca Francesconi and, in concert, the French premier of Pascal Dusapin’s
Concerto for cello, Outscape.
In 2011, you conducted Quartett by Luca Francesconi at La Scala Milan. When did you first meet him?
Susanna Mälkki :
Luca Francesconi’s music before arriving in Paris, but it was when I came to
conduct the Ensemble Intercontemporain that I had the opportunity to meet and
work with him. If I was drawn very early on towards Luca’s music, it is because
it possesses exceptional expressivity and an aesthetic freedom that is
particularly remarkable in the contemporary landscape. Indeed, I chose to
devote my very first recordings to Francesconi and Mantovani – and as luck
would have it, it was on account of those two composers that I came here to
conduct the Paris Opera!
Trompe-la-mort is the second of Luca Francesconi’s operas that you have conducted. On first looking at the score, what struck you particularly about it?
For Quartett – as for Trompe-la-mort -, Luca chose to write the libretto himself; this
probably explains why the composition is in itself a reading of the text. For Quartett, he drew on Heiner Müller's
reading of Les Liaisons dangereuses adding
a supplementary layer to the existing text that filled with great pertinence
the gaps left by Heiner Müller. In the same way, it seems to me that, with
Balzac, he was working on a series of key moments, whilst perfectly respecting
the thread of the narrative. It is a fascinating reading because it expresses
itself at one and the same time in the choice of words, through the writing of
the libretto and in the music which, in several places, takes over the
narrative in purely orchestral passages. The extent of the developments, the
proportions, the amplitude he chooses to accord, or not, to different passages,
the power of the contrasts: everything works together to serve what is a
particularly dramatic reading of the work. This is a characteristic feature of
his writing and it is for that reason that I would say that he is a veritable
composer for the theatre. His theatrical perspective is equally manifest in the
way he creates characters musically and thus, in a sense, recreates them.
Balzac perfectly described the characters of La Comédie humaine with a multitude of details, and yet, in the
musical identity that he gives them, Luca manages to offer us characters that
are different whilst still being themselves. In places, this reading denotes
real tenderness for the characters, and at those moments when they might seem
lost or manipulated, he reminds us of their true nature. With good opera
composers, there is a subtext: the orchestra already knows what the characters
are still unaware of. It constitutes a sort of subconscious. This is the case
in Trompe-la-mort. Furthermore, what
Balzac describes both existed and continues to exist. Luca placed this
continuity at the heart of his writing: he not only perceived it but he also
set it to music.
The creative process is one you are familiar with: you spent several years at the head of the Ensemble Intercontemporain; you have worked with numerous 21st century composers and premiered a number of their works. Where would you place Luca Francesconi’s music within this contemporary landscape?
Luca is a
very interesting composer, notably because his career has been very varied, his
approach to the conception of musical works is cinematic, theatrical or
pictorial in turn and because he has always preserved a very great freedom of
musical thought. I would say that he is also above all else an Italian composer
in that he is really at home in theatre and opera: he has an extremely powerful
sense of drama and dramaturgy. What I like is that his music defies aesthetic
definition. He is not afraid to be expressive, not afraid to be romantic and is
not confined by his own period. He has, so to speak, several languages, several
strings to his bow and I think this is exactly what is needed for this work.
On 6th April you are conducting the French premier of Outscape, Pascal Dusapin’s second cello concerto. According to the composer, the title evokes “the way, or the opportunity to escape, to invent one’s own way forward”. How do the two works that you have chosen to add to the programme fit in around the cello concerto?
Dusapin is a very important figure in the contemporary music scene and his
work, marked as it is by literary, pictorial and philosophical references,
occupies a place all of its own. He has managed to capture all Alisa
Weilerstein’s musical energy and her incredible instrumental freedom and write
a concerto in which the cello and the orchestra constantly turn towards each
other. This notion of progression, the desire to hear and to see further, which
is the basis of his work, also happens to resonate with the programme of the
symphonic poem Also Sprach Zarathustra. To
this work, for which I have great affection and which I have often played, I
have decided to add Szymanovski’s Concert
Overture, a youthful work that clearly shows his love for Strauss. This
link might not seem clear at first, but when one listens to the work, one can’t
help smiling: one hears Strauss almost more clearly than in the music of
Strauss himself. It is an extremely passionate and virtuoso work in which
Szymanowski’s own style is not yet perceptible. It is a juvenile work, in which
he had perhaps not yet invented his own
way forward, but it is nonetheless a little gem.